Physical vapour deposition (PVD) is the general term describing a multitude of methods to deposit thin films on various surfaces.
These deposition methods comprise pure physical processes, such as vaporisation of the layer forming material in a vacuum or sputtering, whereby the material to be deposited is atomised through ion bombardment and transferred into the gaseous pase.
For microfluidic devices often Cr/Au, Ti/Pt or ITO is used, for MEMS or MOMS devices rather Al or TiW. Depending on the requirements Micronit deposits metals or dielectric materials.
Alternatively metals can be deposited by electroplating via a starting layer or conducting paths can be reinforced through electroplating. See also clean room processes.